The Bechdel, Russo and Race Test: Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)

According to the requirements of the Bechdel, Russo and race test, Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) failed to pass all three tests.

There were four female characters in The Winter Soldier who had speaking parts, but these women barely ever spoke to each other. For example, Maria Hill and Black Widow were in the same room a couple of times, but they never made direct eye contact, and when they spoke they either spoke to other men or they spoke to each other about men (e.g., ballistics concerning Fury). 

As to the race and Russo test, the film did not pass these tests because the two or more people of color in the film never talked to each other and because there were no LGBTQI characters in the film.

*The Bechdel test entails three requirements:
1. It has to have at least two (named) women in it
2. Who talk to each other
3. About something besides a man

**The Vito Russo test entails three requirements:
1. The film contains a character that is identifiably lesbian, gay, bisexual, intersex and/or transgender
2. The character must not be solely or predominately defined by her sexual orientation, gender identity and/or as being intersex
3.The character must be tied into the plot in such a way that her removal would have a significant effect

***The race or people of color (POC) test has three requirements:
1. It has two people of color in it
2. Who talk to each other
3. About something other than a White person

****Just because a film passes the Bechdel, Russo and race test does not mean that it is not sexist, heterosexist, racist and/or cissexist, etc. The Bechdel, Russo and race test is only a bare minimum qualifier for the representation of LGBTI individuals, women and people of color in film. The failure to pass these tests also does not identify whether the central character was a woman, a person of color or a LGBTQI individual and it does not dictate the quality of the film.

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